عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan seriously questioned the worldwide presumed trust about the safety of existing nuclear power plants. Neither the advanced facilities nor the existing emergency response preparedness could hamper the rapid expansion of the accident, resulting in the world's most severe nuclear crisis after the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents a chronologic study of the accident and the responses to it in order to recognize the main phases of the crisis management in Fukushima. The study reveals that out of the total five recognized phases, the three first ones have mainly gone through by inevitable reactions, situation assessments, and data gathering for a comprehensive response planning. Investigating the influence of each phase on expansion of the accident is indeed of vital importance for effective planning for responding to similar accidents. Deficiency of preventive measures leading to the occurrence of the accident and incompetence of the Japanese nuclear safety infrastructure in hindering the rapid expansion of the crisis, are also discussed. Following a root cause analysis, the paper concludes with proposals for preventing similar accidents and shortening the duration of the first phases of the aftermaths.