عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust. However, in some areas its natural abundance has been redistributed due to anthropogenic activities, where consequently results in high levels of contamination. In order to study the effect of mycorrhiza fungi and phosphorus on the uranium uptake by sunflower, a pot experiment is conducted under a controlled greenhouse condition. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three factors, including three species of arbuscular mycorrhizae (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, non-mycorrhizae), two levels of phosphorous (20 and 60 mg/kg), and one level of uranium (100 mg/kg). Plants were harvested after 60 days of experiment and dry weight of root and shoot as well as the uranium and phosphorus concentration in the shoot and root were determined. The results showed that mycorrhizae fungi increased the resistance of the plant against heavy metals. Also, mycorrhizae increased the uranium and phosphorous contents in the shoot and root of the sunflower plant. The dry weights of the shoot and root and also the uranium concentration in the shoot of the sunflower plant were significantly augmented by increasing phosphorus level. The results revealed that mycorrhiza symbiosis raised the uranium concentration in the root more than the shoot. Thus, it seems that arbuscular mycorrhiza has a potential for enhancing the phytostabilization of the sunflower plant.
2. J. A. N. Entray, C. Vance, M. A. Hamilton, M. A. Zabowask, D. Zabowask, L. S Watrud, D. C. Adrino, Phytoremediartion of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides, Water, Soil and Air pollution, 88 (1996) 167-176.
3. E. S. Schnug, C. Haneklause, L. C. Schnier, S. Scholten, Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates, Communication in soil science and plant analysis, 27 (1996) 829-841.
4. UNEP II. Depleted uranium in Kosovo, Post-conflict environmental assessment (2001).
5. B. Jagetia, P. Purhit, Effect of various concentration of uranium tailings on certain growth and biochemical parameters in sunflower, Biologica Bratislava 61(1) (2006) 103-107.
6. R. Tadarovsky, I. Koler, On the uranium content in some technogenic products potential environmental pollutions, Journal of radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, letters 176(5) (1993) 405-41.
7. D. L. Sparks, Environmental Soil Chemistry, CRC Boca Raton USA (1995).
9. B. Chen, Y. Zhu, GX. Zhang, X. I. Jakobsen, Effects of mycorrihizal fungus Glomus intradices on uranium uptake and accumulation by Medicago truncatula L. from uranium-contaminated soil, Plant and Soil 275 (2005) 349-359.
10. V. Ultra, U. Tanaka, S. Sakurai, K. Iwasaki, Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus application on arsenic toxicity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and on the transformation of arsenic in the rhizosphere 290 (2007) 29-41.
11.S. Mangkoedihardjo, R. Ratnawati, N. Alfianti, Phytoremediation of Hexavalent Chromium Polluted Soil Using Pterocarpus indicus and Jatropha curcas L., World Applied Sciences Journal, 4 (2008) 338-342.
12. V. Estaun, A. Cortes, K. Velianos, A. Camprubi1, C. Calvet, Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata, Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 8, (2010) 109-115.
13. F. T. Davies, J. D. Jeffrey, J. Ronald, Mycorrhizal fungi enhance accumulation and tolerance of chromium in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Journal of Plant Physiology, 158 (2001) 777-786.
14. M. B. Adewole, O. O. Awotoye, M. O. Ohiembor, A. O. Salami, Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on phytoremediating potential and yield of sunflower in Cd and Pb polluted soils, Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 55 (2010) 17-28.
15. G. Rufyikiria, L. Huysmansa, J. Wannijna, M. Van Heesa, C. Leyvalb, I. Jakobsenc, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the uptake of uranium by subterranean clover grown at high levels of uranium in soil, Environmental Pollution, 130 (2004) 427-436.
16. F. A. Solis-Dominguez, A. L. Valentin-Vargas, J. Chorover, R. M. Maier, Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass and the rhizosphere microbial community structure of mesquite grown in acidic lead/zinc mine tailings, Science of the Total Environment, 409 (2011) 1009-1016.
17. J. W. Huang, M. J. Blaylock, Y. Kapulnik, B.D. Ensley, Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants, Environmental Science and Technology, 32 (13) (1998) 2004-2008.
18. S. B. Sawin, Analytical. use of Arsenazo III determination of Thorium, Zirconium, Uranium and rare earth elements, Talanta, 8 (1961) 673-685.
19. S. Bagherifam, A. Lakzian, S. J. Ahmadi, M. F. Rahimi, A. Halajnia, Uranium removal from aqueous solutions by wood powder and wheat straw, J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 283 (2010) 289-296.
20. W. C. Hanson, The photometric determination of phosphorus in fertilizers using the phosphovanado-molybdate complex, J Sci Food Agr, 1 (1950) 172-173.
21. J. M. Phillips, D. S. Hayman, Improved procedures for clearing and staining parasitic and vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection, Trans Br Mycol Soc, 55 (1970) 158-161.
22. M. Giovanetti, B. Mosse: An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots, New Phytol, 84 (1980) 489-500.
23. I. M. Weiersbye, C. J. Straker, W. J. Przybylowicz, Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of the grass, Cynodon dactylon, from gold and uranium mine tailings, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B158 (104) (1999) 335-343.
24. J. S. Nielsen, E. J. Joner, S. Declerck, S. Olsson, I. Jakobsen, Phospho-imaging as a tool for visualization and noninvasive measurement of P transport dynamics in arbuscular mycorrhizas, New Phytologist 154 (3) (2002) 809-820.
25. S. H. Burleigh, I. E. Bechmann, Plant nutrient transporter regulation in arbuscular mycorrhizas, Plant and Soil, 244 (1-2) (2002) 247-251.