فرایند تهیه‌ی شیشه‌ی سربی با استفاده از کوره‌ی دوار و آسیاب پودر

نوع مقاله: مقاله فنی

نویسنده

پژوهشکده‌ی مواد، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته‌ای، صندوق پستی: 1589-81465، اصفهان ـ ایران

چکیده

هدف این مقاله استفاده از کوره­ی دوار ذوب فریت، برای ذوب شیشه­‌ی سربی است. با توجه به کم بودن حجم محصول شیشه­‌ی تولیدی در طول روز یا در طول سال و به دلیل هزینه­‌ی بالای سرمایه­‌گذاری برای ساخت کوره­‌ی ذوب متداول در صنعت شیشه، با استفاده از کوره­ی دوار و با انجام یک رشته اصلاحات در آن، عملیات ذوب شیشه‌­ی سربی در این کوره به انجام رسید. بعد از انجام آزمایش‌­های خوردگی بر روی بوته‌­های آلومینایی و بررسی ریز ساختار و ترکیب شیشه، مشخص شد که این ماده نسبت به مذاب شیشه­‌ی سربی از مقاومت در برابر خوردگی مناسب برخوردار است. لذا از آجرهای آلومینایی به عنوان دیرگداز محفظه­‌ی کوره استفاده شد. شیشه­‌ی سربی پس از ذوب و هم­زنی در درون این کوره، به وسیله­‌ی آسیاب
گلول‌ه­ای با جداره­ی درونی و گلوله‌­های آلومینایی تا زیر 75 میکرون آسیاب شد. عملیات ذوب، فریت­‌سازی و آسیاب پنج بار تکرار شد. نتایج حاصل هیچ­گونه ناخالصی ذوب نشده، تغییر رنگ و تغییر ترکیب ناشی از ورود عنصر آلومینیم به صورت اتمی به درون شیشه‌­ی سربی را که منجر به تغییرات اساسی شود، نشان نداد. عملیات یکنواخت­‌سازیِ ترکیبی و حذف حباب از درون مذاب نیز به خوبی به وسیله­‌ی این کوره انجام شد.

تازه های تحقیق

  1. H. Li, J. Cheng, L. Tang, Corrosion of electrocast AZS refractories by CAS glass–ceramics melting, J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 354 (2008) 1418–1423.
  2. J. Sedlacek, M. Jamnicky, J. Lokaj, Microstructural analysis and properties of fused cast zirconia refractories corroded in lead glass, J. Solid State Phenomena, 90-91 (2003) 253-258.

 3.   B. H. Bieler, Corrosion of AZS, zircon, and silica refractories by vapors of NaOH and of NaCO3, J. Ceramic Bulletin, 61 (7) (1982) 746-749.

 4.   L. J. Manfredo, R.N. Mcnally, The corrosion resistance of high ZrO2 fusion-cast Al2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 glass refractories in soda lime glass, J. Materials Science, 19 (1984) 1272-1276.

 5.   S. J. Schneider, J. R. Davis, G. M. Davidson, S. R. Lampman, M. S. Woods, T. B. Zorc, Engineered materials handbook volume 4 ceramics and glasses, 386-393.

 6.   C. A. Harper, Handbook of ceramics, Glasses and Diamonds, 6-67.

 7.   Schott Technical information, TIE-26: Homogeneity of Optical glass.

 8.   K. E. Spear, M. D. Allendort, Thermodynamic analysis of alumina refractory corrosion by sodium or pottasium hydroxide in glass melting furnaces, J. Electrochemical Society, 149(12) (2002) B551-B559.

 9.   M. Dunki, Corrosion of refractories by glass melts and suggestions for the reduction of the corrosion rate, Unitcer. 91 (1991) 413-415.

 10.B. A. Vázquez, P. Pena, A. H. de Aza, M. A. Sainz, A. Caballero, Corrosion mechanism of polycrystalline corundum and calcium hexaluminate by calcium silicate slags, J. European Ceramic Society, 29, (2009) 1347–1360.

 11.V. K. Pavlovskii, Y. S. Sobolev, Corrosion of refractory materials in molten lead-silicate glasses, J. Glass and Ceramics, 49(8) (1992) 367-369.

 12.A. A. Verlotski, I. P. Rublevskii, M. V. Kulikova, V. P. Frolova, Resistance of refractories to lead glass melts, J. Glass and Ceramics, 42(4) (1985) 182-186.

 13.R. A. Rahimi, G. Raisali, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, A. Alipour, Chemical corrosion and gamma-ray attenuation properties of Zr and Ti containing lead silicate glasses, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 385 (2009) 527–532.

 14.R. A. Rahimi, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, G. Raisali, Chemical durability of lead silicate glass in HNO3, HCl and H2SO4 aqueous acid solutions, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 355 (2009) 169–174.

 15.R. A. Rahimi, A. Ahmadi, S. Kakooei, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, Corrosion behavior of ZrO2–SiO2–Al2O3 refractories in lead silicate glass melts, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 31 (2011) 715–721.

 16.R. A. Rahimi, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, G. Raisali, A. Hamidi, Hydrolysis kinetics of lead silicate glass in acid solution, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 389 (2009) 427–431.

 17.S. K. Sadrnezhaad, R. A. Rahimi, G. Raisali, F. Foruzanfar, Mechanism of deleading of silicate glass by 0.5 N HNO3, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 355 (2009) 2400–2404.

 18.S. Kakooei, Z. Hamnabard, R. A. Rahimi, A. Hamidi, The influence of heat treatment on microstructural and physical properties of silicate glasses with high-content lead oxide, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6 (5) (2011) 304-312.

 19.R. A. Rahimi, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, The leaching and hydrolysis reactions in corrosion of lead silicate glasses, (Corrosion Science, Accepted January 2012).

 20.A. Rahimi and M. Matin, Fin Ceramic Technology, Iran China Clay Industries Company, (1368 Autumn) 183.

 21.S. Chen, B. Zhao, P. C. Haes, E. Jak, Experimental study of phase equilibria in the PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 systems, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 32(6) (2001), 997-1005.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Lead Silicate Glass Manufacturing by Using Rotary Kiln and Milling of Powder

نویسنده [English]

  • R. A Rahimi
چکیده [English]

The aim of this work is to introduce the application of a rotary kiln system to be used in enamel industry for the purpose of melting lead silicate glass. Due to low volume of lead silicate glass produces during a day or a year, and the necessity to spend a large capital investment for using customary glass melting furnaces, it was decided to apply a rotary kiln system for melting lead silicate glass. In order to be assured for the high corrosion and temperature resistance, alumina refractories were used as a refractory for the inner lining of the rotary kiln. The lead silicate glass after melting and mixing inside the kiln and fritting was grinded inside a ball mill with alumina lining and balls to a powder of mesh size finer than 75 micron. The melting, fritting and milling were repeated 5 times. The results showed that there was neither entered any impurity from the refractory particles nor observed any color and composition change due to entrance of aluminum element to the lead silicate glass melt. The homogenization of the glass composition and the removal of the bubble from the glass melt was carried out extremely well.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lead Silicate Glass
  • Rotary Kiln
  • Powder Ball Milling
  1. H. Li, J. Cheng, L. Tang, Corrosion of electrocast AZS refractories by CAS glass–ceramics melting, J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 354 (2008) 1418–1423.
  2. J. Sedlacek, M. Jamnicky, J. Lokaj, Microstructural analysis and properties of fused cast zirconia refractories corroded in lead glass, J. Solid State Phenomena, 90-91 (2003) 253-258.

 3.   B. H. Bieler, Corrosion of AZS, zircon, and silica refractories by vapors of NaOH and of NaCO3, J. Ceramic Bulletin, 61 (7) (1982) 746-749.

 4.   L. J. Manfredo, R.N. Mcnally, The corrosion resistance of high ZrO2 fusion-cast Al2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 glass refractories in soda lime glass, J. Materials Science, 19 (1984) 1272-1276.

 5.   S. J. Schneider, J. R. Davis, G. M. Davidson, S. R. Lampman, M. S. Woods, T. B. Zorc, Engineered materials handbook volume 4 ceramics and glasses, 386-393.

 6.   C. A. Harper, Handbook of ceramics, Glasses and Diamonds, 6-67.

 7.   Schott Technical information, TIE-26: Homogeneity of Optical glass.

 8.   K. E. Spear, M. D. Allendort, Thermodynamic analysis of alumina refractory corrosion by sodium or pottasium hydroxide in glass melting furnaces, J. Electrochemical Society, 149(12) (2002) B551-B559.

 9.   M. Dunki, Corrosion of refractories by glass melts and suggestions for the reduction of the corrosion rate, Unitcer. 91 (1991) 413-415.

 10.B. A. Vázquez, P. Pena, A. H. de Aza, M. A. Sainz, A. Caballero, Corrosion mechanism of polycrystalline corundum and calcium hexaluminate by calcium silicate slags, J. European Ceramic Society, 29, (2009) 1347–1360.

 11.V. K. Pavlovskii, Y. S. Sobolev, Corrosion of refractory materials in molten lead-silicate glasses, J. Glass and Ceramics, 49(8) (1992) 367-369.

 12.A. A. Verlotski, I. P. Rublevskii, M. V. Kulikova, V. P. Frolova, Resistance of refractories to lead glass melts, J. Glass and Ceramics, 42(4) (1985) 182-186.

 13.R. A. Rahimi, G. Raisali, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, A. Alipour, Chemical corrosion and gamma-ray attenuation properties of Zr and Ti containing lead silicate glasses, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 385 (2009) 527–532.

 14.R. A. Rahimi, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, G. Raisali, Chemical durability of lead silicate glass in HNO3, HCl and H2SO4 aqueous acid solutions, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 355 (2009) 169–174.

 15.R. A. Rahimi, A. Ahmadi, S. Kakooei, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, Corrosion behavior of ZrO2–SiO2–Al2O3 refractories in lead silicate glass melts, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 31 (2011) 715–721.

 16.R. A. Rahimi, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, G. Raisali, A. Hamidi, Hydrolysis kinetics of lead silicate glass in acid solution, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 389 (2009) 427–431.

 17.S. K. Sadrnezhaad, R. A. Rahimi, G. Raisali, F. Foruzanfar, Mechanism of deleading of silicate glass by 0.5 N HNO3, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 355 (2009) 2400–2404.

 18.S. Kakooei, Z. Hamnabard, R. A. Rahimi, A. Hamidi, The influence of heat treatment on microstructural and physical properties of silicate glasses with high-content lead oxide, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6 (5) (2011) 304-312.

 19.R. A. Rahimi, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, The leaching and hydrolysis reactions in corrosion of lead silicate glasses, (Corrosion Science, Accepted January 2012).

 20.A. Rahimi and M. Matin, Fin Ceramic Technology, Iran China Clay Industries Company, (1368 Autumn) 183.

 21.S. Chen, B. Zhao, P. C. Haes, E. Jak, Experimental study of phase equilibria in the PbO-Al2O3-SiO2 systems, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 32(6) (2001), 997-1005.