اثر پرتو گاما بر افزایش طول عمر انباری سیب‌زمینی در شرایط بهینه‌ی مصرف کود

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده‌ی کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، صندوق پستی: 336-14115، تهران ـ ایران

2 پژوهشکده‌ی کاربرد پرتوها، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته‌ای، سازمان انرژی اتمی ایران، صندوق پستی: 3486-11365، تهران ـ ایران

چکیده

در حال حاضر حدود 20 الی 25 درصد محصول‌های کشاورزی به صورت ضایعه‌هایی از چرخه‌ی مصرف خارج می‌شود. برای بررسی نقش مصرف بهینه‌ی کود در افزایش اثربخشی پرتو گاما، آزمایشی به صورت طرح فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه‌ی بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سیب-زمینی رقم پیکاسو انجام شد. در این آزمایش سه عامل شامل نوع کوددهی (مصرف کود براساس عرف زارعین و مصرف بهینه‌ی کود براساس یافته‌های تجزیه‌ی خاک)، پرتودهی با پرتو گاما (شاهد و پرتودیده) و زمان اندازه‌گیری عامل‌های مورد نظر (قبل از انبارداری و 6 ماه پس از انبارداری) استفاده شد. نمونه‌ها با دز 15/0 کیلو‌گری پرتودهی شده و به مدت 6 ماه تحت دمای 15 الی 20 درجه‌ی سلسیوس و رطوبت نسبی 40 الی 60 درصد نگه‌داری شدند. درصد ماده‌ی خشک و مقدار نیترات و کادمیم، قبل و بعد از ذخیره‌سازی، اندازه‌گیری شد. یافته‌ها نشان داد در حالی‌که درصد ماده‌ی خشک در نمونه‌های عرف زارع پرتودهی نشده در طول مدت انبارمانی از 86/16 به 44/21 و در نمونه‌های پرتودهی شده از 68/17 به 41/19 و در شرایط بهینه‌ی مصرف کود نمونه‌های پرتودهی نشده از 09/20 به 18/23 و در نمونه‌های پرتودهی شده از 75/19 به 65/20 درصد افزایش یافت. نظر به این‌که میزان کاهش وزن غده‌های حاصل از تیمار مصرف بهینه‌ی کود در مدت انبارمانی حداقل بود، برتری پرتودهی در شرایط مصرف بهینه‌ی کود بر افزایش ماندگاری سیب‌زمینی در مقایسه با مصرف کود براساس عرف زارع، به اثبات رسید. بنابراین، توصیه می‌شود در تمامی فرآورده‌های کشاورزی، قبل از پرتودهی با پرتو گاما، مصرف بهینه‌ی کود در تولید آن‌ها رعایت شود. زیرا اثربخشی مصرف بهینه‌ی کود (مصرف کودها براساس یافته‌های تجزیه‌ی خاک در قبل از کاشت) بر ماندگاری سیب‌زمینی به دلیل بهبود کیفیت تولیدات کشاورزی به ویژه افزایش درصد ماده‌ی خشک، به مراتب بیش‌تر است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of gamma radiation under balanced fertilization in increasing potato shelf life in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roghayeh Abbasi 1
  • Mohammad Jafar Malakouti 1
  • Marziyeh Sayhoon 2
چکیده [English]

At present, about 20 to 25 percent of agricultural products are removed as waste from the consumption cycle. Using gamma radiation is one of the methods to reduce waste in agricultural products, especially in potato (Solanumtuberosum L.). Under current conditions, gamma radiation is used in the farm products in which fertilization is based on farmer's conventional fertilizer use (urea and phosphate). The idea is to observe the effect of gamma radiation on decreasing the agricultural storage waste when fertilization is done according to the soil analysis results. To study the role of the balanced fertilization in increasing the effect of gamma radiation, a factorial experiment was conducted in the form of randomized complete block design with three replications in Pikasocultivar. In this experiment, the three factors used were: a) fertilizer application, i. e., farmer's conventional fertilization and balanced fertilization methods; b) irradiation with gamma radiation, i. e., control and irradiate; and c) measuring the storage time factor, i. e., before and after 6 months of storage. The samples were irradiated with the dose of 0.15 kGy, then all samples were stored for 6 months at 15 to 20°C at the relative humidity of 40 to 60%. Percentages of dry matter and the concentrations of nitrate and cadmium were measured before and after the storage. The results revealed that, while the percentage of the dry matter in the samples of farmer's conventional fertilization method, that were not irradiated, increased from 16.86%to 21.44%, the irradiated samples increased from 17.68% to 19.41% during the storage period. These changes in the balanced fertilization samples in those which were not irradiated, increased from 20.09% to 23.18% and in the irradiated samples increased from 19.75% to 20.65%. By considering the obtained results, as the rate of weight loss in the tubers under the balanced fertilization was minimum, the effectiveness of gamma radiation in the condition of the balanced fertilization on the shelf life of potato tubers was proved. While the superiority of the balanced fertilization [fertilization on the basis of pre-plant soil analysis results over farmer's conventional fertilization method (N and P-fertilizers)] has been proven, gamma radiation in the condition of the balanced fertilization for increasing the potato tubers shelf life shows to act effectively, mainly due to high tubers dry matter percentage. Therefore, performing further experiments and analyses for other agricultural products under the crop balanced fertilization is highly recommended.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Potato
  • Balanced fertilization
  • Gamma radiaiton
  • Shelf life

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